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How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character

Paul Tough
For example, acute stress raises blood pressure to provide adequate blood flow to the muscles and organs that need to respond to a dangerous situation. That?s good. But repeatedly elevated blood pressure leads to atherosclerotic plaque, which causes heart attacks.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 435-36 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 04:28 PM
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allostasis,
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 433 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 04:25 PM
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Overloading the HPA axis, especially in infancy and childhood, produces all kinds of serious and long-lasting negative effects?physical, psychological, and neurological.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 429-30 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 04:24 PM
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When a potential danger appears, the first line of defense is the hypothalamus, the region of the brain that controls unconscious biological processes like body temperature, hunger, and thirst. The hypothalamus emits a chemical that triggers receptors in the pituitary gland; the pituitary releases signaling hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands; and the adrenal glands then send out stress hormones called glucocorticoids that switch on a host of specific defensive responses. Some of these responses we can recognize in ourselves as they happen: emotions like fear and anxiety, and physical reactions like increased heart rate, clammy skin, and a dry mouth. But many effects of the HPA axis are less immediately apparent to us, even when we?re the ones experiencing them: neurotransmitters activate, glucose levels rise, the cardiovascular system sends blood to the muscles, and inflammatory proteins surge through the bloodstream. In his insightful and entertaining book Why Zebras Don?t Get Ulcers, the neuroscientist Robert Sapolsky explains that our stress-response system, like that of all mammals, evolved to react to brief and acute stresses. That worked well when humans were out on the savanna running from predators. But modern humans rarely have to contend with lion attacks. Instead, most of our stress today comesInstead, most of our stress today comes from mental processes: from worrying about things.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 416-26 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 04:05 PM
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Instead, most of our stress today comes from mental processes: from worrying about things.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 425-26 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 04:04 PM
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neuroendocrinology (the study of how hormones interact with the brain) and stress physiology (the study of how stress affects the body). Although Anda and Felitti initially didn?t understand the biological mechanisms at work in their ACE data, scientists have reached a consensus in the past decade that the key channel through which early adversity causes damage to developing bodies and brains is stress.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 411-14 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 03:02 PM
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When they looked at patients with high ACE scores (7 or more) who didn?t smoke, didn?t drink to excess, and weren?t overweight, they found that their risk of ischemic heart disease (the single most common cause of death in the United States) was still 360 percent higher than those with an ACE score of 0. The adversity these patients had experienced in childhood was making them sick through a pathway that had nothing to do with
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 404-7 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 02:48 PM
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Compared to people with no history of ACEs, people with ACE scores of 4 or higher were twice as likely to smoke, seven times more likely to be alcoholics, and seven times more likely to have had sex before age fifteen. They were twice as likely to have been diagnosed with cancer, twice as likely to have heart disease, twice as likely to have liver disease, four times as likely to suffer from emphysema or chronic bronchitis. On some charts, the slopes were especially steep: adults with an ACE score above 6 were thirty times more likely to have attempted suicide than those with an ACE score of 0. And men with an ACE score above 5 were forty-six times more likely to have injected drugs than men with no history of ACEs.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 394-99 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 02:11 PM
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Along the bottom of each chart, the x-axis, the doctors plotted the number of ACEs that patients had experienced. Along the y-axis, they indicated the prevalence of a specific undesirable outcome: obesity, depression, early sexual activity, history of smoking, and so on.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 392-93 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 02:10 PM
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the higher the ACE score, the worse the outcome on almost every measure from addictive behavior to chronic disease.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 390-91 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 02:08 PM
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The correlations between adverse childhood experiences and negative adult outcomes were so powerful that they ?stunned us,?
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 388-89 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 02:07 PM
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called the ACE study,
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 374 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:49 PM
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Adverse Childhood Experiences study, commonly
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 374 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:48 PM
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The author was Vincent Felitti,
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 373 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:47 PM
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The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to Adult Health: Turning Gold into Lead.?
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 372-73 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:45 PM
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Gradually, Burke Harris became convinced of what had at first seemed a radical idea: that in neighborhoods like Bayview?Hunters Point and Roseland, many of the problems we generally think of as social issues?the province of economists and sociologists?are actually best analyzed and addressed on the molecular level, down deep in the realm of human biology.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 368-70 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:40 PM
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Many of the children she saw in the clinic seemed depressed or anxious, and some of them were downright traumatized, and the stress of their daily lives expressed itself in a variety of symptoms, from panic attacks to eating disorders to suicidal behavior. She sometimes felt less like a primary-care pediatrician and more like a battlefield surgeon, patching up her patients and sending them back to war.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 363-65 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:37 PM
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Burke Harris had studied health disparities at Harvard, and she knew what the public-health playbook said you should do to remediate them: improve access to health care, especially primary care, for low-income families.
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 353-54 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:29 PM
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What effect does poverty have on children?
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 344 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:24 PM
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She was looking for any kind of intervention that might address what now seemed to her to be the most pressing crisis at Fenger?not her students? academic deficits, though those remained acute and distressing, but a deeper set of problems, born out of her students? troubled and often traumatic home lives, that made it difficult for them to get through each day. ?When I came into this job, I discounted questions like ?What families do kids come from?? and ?What effect does poverty have on children??? Dozier said to me one morning. ?But since I started working at Fenger, my thinking has evolved.?
How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character - Paul Tough - Highlight Loc. 339-43 | Added on Friday, December 06, 2013, 01:23 PM
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