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In conclusion, the present study shows, in part, the reliability of the ATOM model using two temporal tasks. This reliability is mainly shown by both individuating the STEARC, SNARC and TiNARC effects, and individuating a triple interaction between time, space and numbers. The STEARC, SNARC and TiNARC effects can arise at a responserelated stage (Ishihara et al., 2008; Keus & Schwarz, 2005; Kiesel & Vierck, 2009). The present data seem to confirm a symmetrical relationship between time, space and quantity, as has been recently observed in experiments involving directional effects on 2010). Further studies should address the reliability of the ATOM rhesus monkeys, which showed large bispatial?temporal judgments (Merritt et al., model using, for instance, numerical or spatial tasks in which time is an irrelevant factor for the performance of the task.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
According to Walsh (2003), time, space and numbers are computed by a common metric and they are connected by a common (visuomotor) code for action.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
Regarding this point, the ATOM model suggests a role of the right parietal area in processing the three systems (Walsh, 2003), probably explaining the presence of the TiNARC effect for the left space.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
In line with previous results, our data show that small magnitudes (1?2orA?B) are associated with short durations, and large magnitudes (8?9orH?I) are associated with long durations (Experiment 1); small magnitudes induce a timing underestimation mainly when short durations are processed and large magnitudes induce timing overestimation with long durations, even if this association fails to reach statistical significance (Experiment 2). Thesefindings indicate the possible presence of a common system processing both quantity and time information. Importantly, the TiNARC effect has been shown for the number condition but it disappears when the letter condition is analyzed. This result could reflect the fact that numerosity is automatically accessed even when it is taskirrelevant (e.g., Roitman, Brannon, Andrews, & Platt, 2007).ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
The third piece of evidence is linked to the TiNARC effectATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
The second piece of evidence derives from the finding of a SNARC effect (Cappelletti et al., 2009; Dehaene et al., 1993) in both experiments. Our data seem to indicate that the quantity information (i.e. irrelevant for the tasks) is automatically processed and this processing is linked to lateralized response codes (Dehaene & Akhavein, 1995; Dehaene et al., 1993). In Experiment 1, small numbers were responded to faster with the left key while the right key facilitated a faster response to large numbers. In Experiment 2, the ReTs of small numbers were shorter with the left rather than the right key, while those of large numbers were shorter with the right rather than the left key. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a classical SNARC effect has been observed in temporal tasks, extending the work by Kiesel and Vierck (2009) who found a SNARC-like effect using a response duration.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
In Experiment 2, the left key determined lower reproduction times when short durations were considered; in a similar way, the right key determined lower ReTs when long durations were considered (see also Vicario et al., 2008). Thesefindings indicate a left-to-right temporal representation which is a useful metaphor in mapping time defined as milliseconds (in the present research), life events (Arzy, Adi-Japha, & Blanke, 2009; Arzy, Collette, Ionta, Fornari, & Blanke, 2009), or past-future categorization (Santiago et al., 2007; Torralbo et al., 2006).ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
In Experiment 1, the participants performed the task better when short durations were judged by pressing the left key, whereas long durations were judged in a more accurate way when the right key was pressed.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
In the present research, the spatial information is provided by two lateralized keys while the numbers or letters providing temporal information are centrally presented. The spatial congruency between time and response facilitates the performance according to the spatial position of temporal information on the MTL. It is worth noting that this time?response congruency is found when presenting either numbers or letters because the time processing is relevant for the task.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
The main results obtained in both experiments seem to partially posit that the ATOM model (Bueti & Walsh, 2009; Fabbri & Natale, 2009; Walsh, 2003)reflects a single generalized system dealing with these magnitudes. This assumption seems to derive from three pieces of evidence. The first regards the STEARC effect (Ishihara et al., 2008; Vallesi et al., 2008), reflecting the metaphor of a linear representation of time along a spatially-oriented lineATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
The results regarding ReTs from Experiment 2 mirrored those of Experiment 1. That is, general STEARC, SNARC and TiNARC effects were obtained in a reproduction task. This result seems to confirm the idea of one generalized system dealing with all three magnitudes. As before, the three effects were modulated by the type of experimental material presented. These effects were shown when numbers were used as stimuli, even if the TiNARC effect was reliable only when short durations were considered; there was a no significant trend for long durations. The STEARC effect was also found with the presentation of alphabetical materials, as in Experiment 1. These results may be considered to extend the previousfindings of spatial?temporal and temporal?numerical interactions in a time bisection task (Frassinetti et al., 2009; Oliveri et al., 2009; Vicario, 2007), due to the fact that two lateralized response keys were used here. However, Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 because the triple interaction between space, duration and magnitude (i.e. Key ×Duration×Magnitude) was not significant. This difference could depend on the nature of the temporal reproduction task compared with the temporal perception task. The difference between them is that the estimation of the whole interval is operationalized by a motor act in the time reproduction task, whereas it is based entirely on a perceptual judgment in the time estimation task (Bueti et al., 2008). Previous studies claim for a sensorimotorial transformation process that mediates stimulus perception and response preparation in STEARC, SNARC and TiNARC effects (Bueti & Walsh, 2009; Walsh, 2003). In line with this assumption, there are studies demonstrating that the three effects arise at response selection stage (Ishihara et al., 2008; Keus & Schwarz, 2005; Kiesel & Vierck, 2009), as was found in Experiment 1. The reproduction task engaging both the response selection and response execution stage could mask or reduce the interaction between the three magnitudes, according to the ATOM model. Recently, Lewis and Miall (2006) stated that tasks requiring replication of a duration via an action may be especially reliant on the motor system. Consequently, including duration as a dimension of the response may necessitate different encoding and memory processes that those engaged for temporal discrimination.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
A four-way repeated measures ANOVA was carried out on ReTs with Stimulus (2 levels: numbers vs. letters), Key (2 levels: left vs. right), Duration (2 levels: short and long) and Magnitude (2 levels: small vs. large) as within-subjects factors.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
Then, the white reference stimulus (cue) remained centrally on the black screen for one of five different durations: 200, 300, 400, 500 or 600 ms (estimation phase). The durations of 200 and 300 ms were considered as short times while those of 500 and 600 ms were considered as long times. Two reference cues were presented according to the conditions: a number 5 or letter E. After this, five targets could appear according to the conditions (numbers: 1, 2, 5, 8, and 9, vs. letters: A, B, E, H, and I). The participants were then instructed to reproduce the duration of the reference cue after the presentation of a BEEP sound (reproduction phase).ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
First, the participants were required to reproduce the duration of a presented stimulus. The task was repeated in four separate sessions: numerical condition and right key (in which subjects were instructed to press the ?6? key of a numerical keypad on a normal keyboard with their right hand), numerical condition and left key (the ?4? key was pressed with the left hand), alphabetical condition and right key, alphabetical condition and left key. The response buttons were covered by two green disks in order to avoid any numerical influenceATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
As before, a within-subjects design is applied in order to detect the role of space in modulating the time and number processing. Thus, the participants performed a time reproduction task, pressing a right-hand side button in one condition and a left button in the other, in order to stop an imaginary clock. As before, the participants performed the task both with numerical and alphabetical materials.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
In the time estimation task, the motor response is required in order to make an estimation (i.e., shorter-longer), while in the time reproduction task, the motor response is required to reproduce an estimated duration, and thus the response-related stage and response execution are probably involved.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
These two tasks are directly comparable as they share common encoding and storing of temporal information, but differ in how participants use time information to make responsesATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
In both tasks some motor preparation and/or execution is required and there is a visual presentation of the time durations. The difference between them is that the estimation of the whole duration is operationalized by a motor act in the time reproduction task, whereas it is based entirely on a perceptual judgment in the time estimation task.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
Experiment 2 aims to study the interaction between time, space and numbers using a time reproduction task, with a strong motor component. In this way, we should be able to deeply address where the ATOM model takes place. This is prompted by the fact that time estimation and time reproduction tasks seem to be quite similar.ATOM - ert replikeringsexp.
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