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Time, space, quantity in the Brain

Mikael Skagenholt
the basis for ATOM is not constrained by any proposed mechanisms of timekeeping and is consistent with clock or non-clock explanations.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 294-295 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:08:55 PM
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it is now clear that many neurons at every level of visual analysis are double or even triple duty for form, motion and chromatic content.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 290-291 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:08:16 PM
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Psychophysically, this has been shown to be the case (Burr & Ross 2008); the relevant neurons are found, as predicted, in the parietal cortex and dual-task experiments show interference between number and action
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 286-287 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:07:51 PM
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The proposal is that we learn about space and time through action and associations between space, time and magnitudes relevant for action (such as size, speed and, under some conditions, luminance and contrast) will be made through action. When we later learn about number, the neurons with capacity to represent quantity are those that have information about the continuous variables learned about motorically. Thus, the neuronal scaling mechanisms used for dimensions with action-relevant magnitude information will be co-opted in development for the scaling of number.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 282-286 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:07:37 PM
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what are the specific operations underlying magnitude representation and what does the generalized magnitude view mean for models of timing such as internal clock mechanisms?
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 279-280 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:07:00 PM
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Behaviour may be spatial or temporal in a laboratory, but in the real world they originate in the same coordinate system applied to all magnitudes.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 277-278 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:06:50 PM
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With any system that is distributed between visual areas, it will be possible to construct dissociations. In the visual system, for example, one can study colour, form or motion and show task-specific dissociations between them. When we see, of course, we see coloured forms moving and therefore need to know both how these specializations evolve and develop and how they form coherent percepts. In the magnitude domain, we can concentrate on size, distance, time or number and we therefore need to understand the evolution and development of these specialization; but, as in vision, when we interact with the world we do so in time and space, so much so that dissociations between them probably tell us more about the strange things we can make people do in experiments rather than how the brain operates in the real world
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 270-275 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:06:20 PM
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As noted in Walsh (2003a,b) (figure 1), the parietal cortex, although it may be considered the ?primary magnitude cortex?, is only one locus of magnitude processing?there is a magnitude system not a single magnitude area. Accordingly, magnitude processing also overlaps in the prefrontal cortex both in monkeys (Nieder & Miller 2004; Diester & Nieder 2007) and humans
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 263-267 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:05:40 PM
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Owing to the association of numerical mapping with space, there is an emphasis on right hemisphere functions, but it is clear that explicit numerical operations and motor action selection and preparation rely on left parietal cortex mechanisms. It is also clear that if learning about magnitudes in the world is first achieved through interacting with them as an infant (?can I lift that; can I get over that; can I gather these; can I get all this in my mouth??), there will be a close relationship between the right hemisphere registration of continuous quantities and left hemisphere mechanisms involved in action (cf. Andres et al. and Lindemann et al. for example above).
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 259-263 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:05:17 PM
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Oneissue that may bedeveloped morefully in ATOM is that of hemispheric asymmetries
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 257-258 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:04:54 PM
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Among the predictions made were that different magnitudes should show interference and priming effects; that other brain areas associated with magnitude processing (such as V5 for motion processing) should also display some evidence of involvement in other magnitudes (in the case of V5, time; see Bueti et al. 2008a,b); and that the SNARC effect, in which small number judgements are associated with response codes in left space and large numbers with response codes in right space, should prove to be a SQUARC effect in which any spatially or actioncoded magnitude will yield a relationship between magnitude and space (cf. Notebaert et al. 2006). All of these predictions have been confirmed to date.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 252-257 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:04:38 PM
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The effects on any numerical, spatial or temporal task are strongly affected by task demands (Go¨bel et al. 2004). For example, when numerical responses are associated with finger counting, it is the left parietal cortex that is susceptible to TMS interference
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 242-244 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:02:43 PM
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Knops et al. (2006) delivered repetitive TMS over the right posterior parietal lobe and observed neglect-like symptoms on a line bisection task, i.e. subjects? perceived midpoint of a numerical interval shifted to the right as a consequence of TMS.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 238-240 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:01:58 PM
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TMS over the right IPS, however, has less effect on automatic number processing and only an effect limited to the right side of space on the mental number line
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 234-235 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:01:18 PM
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Later studies have shown that TMS over the right parietal cortex, in particular the IPS, can also prevent the automatic processing of magnitude information
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 232-233 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:01:08 PM
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The first study of TMS effects of number processing (Go¨bel et al.2001) showed that temporary interference with the right angular gyrus disrupted the spatial representation of the number line.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 231-232 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:00:59 PM
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If different magnitudes rely on the parietal cortex, then interfering with parietal regions should yield deficits on tasks related to time, space, number and other magnitudes.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 229-231 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:00:47 PM
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The posterior parietal cortex is not the only area that shows magnitude-selective response?following Onoe et al., neurons responsive to elapsed time or number have been found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 227-228 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:00:32 PM
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Neurons in the ventral intraparietal region, however, also have some interesting magnitude features. Nieder?s laboratory, for example, has shown that neurons responsive to numerical information are also sensitive to nonnumerical task information (Nieder et al. 2006; see also Calabrese 2007). And while some reports have concentrated on number-specific responses (Nieder & Miller 2003;Nieder 2004, 2005; Roitman et al. 2007a,b), it is also clear that neurons in the posterior parietal cortex encode different forms of quantity information
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 222-226 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 5:00:12 PM
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Sawamura et al. (2002) recorded number-selective neurons in the intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule (see also Sawamura et al. 2006). These neurons recorded in the lateral intraparietal sulcus are strong candidates for the locus of a population with generalized magnitude properties because their responses are often dependent on spatial information.
Time, space, quantity in the Brain - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 219-222 | Added on Saturday, March 9, 2013 4:59:03 PM
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