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Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica

Mikael Skagenholt
Even if their performance on visuospatial working memory task was within normal range, our DYS participants had a smaller span than control adults. Such a visuospatial weakness might account for some numerical difficulties of children in arithmetic
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 499-501 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 9:00:41 PM
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On the contrary, no clear differences between DYS and control peers were found when they had to judge the spatial location of the same numbers. This important finding suggests that at least some visuospatial mechanisms are intact in the context of math disability. Adults with DYS were able to estimate the location of numbers as accurately and quickly as adults who never manifested difficulties in math during the development.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 482-485 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:58:59 PM
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However, this proposal is at odds with the amount of research showing persistent difficulties in learning and remembering basic arithmetic facts in DYS children
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 474-475 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:57:51 PM
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When making numerical decision, DYS participants had greater difficulties to accept triplets that were not part to a multiplication table. When judging the spatial location of numbers, they were more error prone for triplets that belonged to a multiplication table. We have no clear explanation for this result. Together, thesefindings could be interpreted as an automatic retrieval of the triplets that were part of multiplication tables in DYS adults.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 471-474 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:57:41 PM
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Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that the representation of number magnitude is fuzzier in math disability than in healthy control populations.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 466-467 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:56:54 PM
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In a same way, a close distance between the middle number and the arithmetical mean strongly influenced both error rates and latencies especially in adults with DYS.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 462-463 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:56:15 PM
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Compared with control peers, DYS participants showed greater difficulties to accept triplets covering a large range.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 461-462 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:55:23 PM
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Adults with DYS were slower than both CON and MATH in judging the magnitude of Arabic numbers irrespective of whether they had to reject or accept the middle number as the real arithmetical mean of the two outer numbers.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 458-459 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:55:05 PM
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Following this assumption, information related to numerical decision (but not information related to numerical representation) could thus not be automatic enough to interfere with spatial processing. A similar conclusion was reached by a study reporting facilitation/interference effects of the length judgments on numerosity but not the reverse
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 451-453 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:54:19 PM
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judgment was four times slower than the spatial one, it may be that such a mechanism might be initiated but not completed in time to interfere with the spatial decision
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 449-450 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:53:28 PM
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judgment was
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 449-449 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:53:19 PM
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these two effects strongly depends on task demands.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 445-445 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:47:49 PM
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Our data challenge this view by showing that the numerical distance influenced the spatial judgment whereas the congruency did not. Rather, we suggest that the presence (or absence) of
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 443-445 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:47:18 PM
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For the ?no? triplets in the spatial task, this would then lead to a greater difficulty to accept the (incongruent) spatial decision (e.g., 21___26_27).
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 431-432 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:45:46 PM
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Consequently, participants might spontaneously be inclined to respond ?yes? to indicate the match between spatial and numerical representations.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 430-431 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:45:35 PM
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explanation for this result is that the spatial arrangement of the three numbers in the triplet automatically activates our mental representation of numbers which is supposed to be logarithmic
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 427-428 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:45:23 PM
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One possible
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 427-427 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:45:14 PM
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spatial judgment, the numerical distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean of the two outer numbers influenced performance on ?no? triplets in the spatial task.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 422-423 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:44:23 PM
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Such an impact was reflected here by the effect of numerical distance on spatial judgment. Although this factor was irrelevant for the
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 421-422 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:44:07 PM
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Besides the impact of spatial factors on numerical judgment, we also found some evidence for an impact of numerical factors on spatial judgment.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 417-418 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:43:30 PM
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were neutral (e.g., 3__6__8) or incongruent (e.g., 3_6___8). This effect mainly appeared when the middle number was close to the arithmetical mean.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 411-412 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:41:58 PM
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With respect to ?representational? congruency, responses were faster when the magnitude of the middle number was congruent with the spatial distance between it and the two outer numbers (e.g., 3___6_8) than when number magnitude and spatial distance
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 409-411 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:41:42 PM
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Assessing in parallel performance in spatial judgment on the same set of triplets enabled us to examine interactions between numerical and spatial judgments.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 398-399 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:40:33 PM
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For ?no? items, the distance to the middle affected both speed and accuracy of participants, as reflected by an easier rejection for triplets with a middle number far away from the real arithmetical mean. Similarly, non-bisectable triplets (whose two outer numbers did not share the same parity) were rejected faster and more accurately than bisectable triplets.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 395-398 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:40:15 PM
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For ?yes? items, our participants were faster and more accurate in responding to triplets covering a narrow range than to triplets covering a wide range.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 393-394 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:39:50 PM
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Regarding numerical judgment, performance was found to be mediated by number magnitude but also by other numerical variables such as multiplication fact knowledge stored in long-term memory and implicit use of parity information
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 390-391 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:39:36 PM
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Fig. 2.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 342-342 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:37:48 PM
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Fig. 1.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 340-340 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:37:43 PM
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Trials could be congruent when both numerical and spatial judgments led to the same decision, i.e., the middle number was numerically and spatially at the centre of the two outer numbers (e.g., 6__9__12) or not (e.g., 5_8___10). Trials could be incongruent when numerical and spatial judgments led to different decisions, i.e., the middle number was the real arithmetical mean but not the spatial centre (e.g., 6_9___12)
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 206-209 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:30:44 PM
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They were instructed to make two different kinds of judgments on the same triplets. First, the spatial judgment requires to determine whether the middle number is the spatial centre (i.e., at an equal spatial distance) of the two outer numbers. To do that, the spatial distance between the three numbers was manipulated. The distance between the middle and the outer numbers of the triplets varied between 3 cm, 3.3 cm, or 3.6 cm.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 186-189 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:28:46 PM
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Taken together, these findings support perturbation of spatial processes associated with number comparison or estimation tasks in developmental dyscalculia. However, up to now it is not clear whether the difficulties altering the association between space and numbers originate from a spatial or number magnitude deficit, or from a combined impairment of these processes.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 84-86 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:17:23 PM
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accurately, and confidently know the size of small (1?4) visual patterns without counting, was limited to two points in children with DYS
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 70-71 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:14:07 PM
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When healthy participants had to mark the midpoint of a line consisting of Arabic numerals (Fischer, 2001) or number?words (Calabria & Rossetti, 2005), a bias to the left for small numbers and to the right for larger ones was observed.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 48-50 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:12:04 PM
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This effect was initially found in parity judgments when adult participants responded faster to small numbers with the left-hand, and to large numbers with the righthand
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 29-30 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:06:59 PM
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association between relative number size and response side, such that larger numbers are associated with right side and smaller numbers with left side responses
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 27-28 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:06:35 PM
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According to one of the most popular models, numbers are represented mentally along a mental number line oriented from left to right
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 24-25 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:06:18 PM
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The way human beings represent numbers is partly related to spatial processes. Current research provides indeed clear evidence for a close interconnection between numbers and space
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 22-24 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:06:11 PM
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By contrast, adults with DYS were as accurate and fast as adults who never experienced math disability when they had to make a spatial judgment.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 18-19 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:05:19 PM
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factors related to number magnitude such as the range of the triplets or the distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean.
Relationships-between-number-and-space-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-dyscalculia_[pub_year]_Acta-Psychologica - Mikael Skagenholt - Your Highlight Location 17-18 | Added on Sunday, February 24, 2013 8:04:17 PM
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